What are some of the pain assessment or rating scales the nurse can utilize with Esther?

Alicia and Mandy are accompanying their 3-year-old daughter, Esther, during her stay at the local children’s hospital for a displaced fracture of the left femur as the result of a pedestrian versus motor vehicle accident. Esther is in traction until such time that she can receive surgery to place orthopedic appliances to stabilize the fractured femur. (Learning Objectives 5 and 6)What are some of the pain assessment or rating scales the nurse can utilize with Esther?What are some nonpharmacologic interventions the nurse can utilize to manage pain in Esther?What is the nurse’s role in pharmacologic pain management for Esther?