Nosebleeds can be divided into three groups.  What are they? 

A mother brings in her 11 year old son, Branch, because he has had a nosebleed.  She is concerned about it because they have been applying pressure by pinching it and the nosebleed won’t stop.  He has no history of nosebleeds.  He has no significant medical history and no known allergies.  He is on no medications.  Mom and Branch deny trauma to the nose.  He says he just woke up with a nosebleed and it won’t stop.  He tells you that the left side is the side that is bleeding.

Vital signs:  BP 110/70 P 84 R 14 T 97.8 oral Pulse ox 99%

You recognize that simple pressure is not going to stop the nosebleed so you know that you will not have to intervene. 

  1.  1.Prior to any type of procedure, you have the mother sign an informed consent for a procedure.  What are the three major areas you must discuss when doing any type of procedure?
  2. 2. Nosebleeds can be divided into three groups.  What are they? 
  3. 3. 90% of nosebleeds fall into which group? 
  4. 4.Name 4 indications for intervention by a provider for a nosebleed. 
  5. 5. You place Branch on the exam table at approximately 45 degrees.  You drape him appropriately.  You have him blow his nose gently to remove clots.  You then inspect the right side to familiarize yourself with his anatomy.  You then inspect the left side using a nasal speculum.  5.When using the nasal speculum, it is important to use it ______________ (HORIZONTALLY/VERTICALLY).
  6. 6. Why is it important to use the nasal speculum a certain way?
    1. 7.You note that the bleeding is coming from an area on the septum.  You know that the next step is to apply a vasconstrictive solution to the nose.  What are two ways you can deliver the vasoconstrictive solution? 
    2. 8. You note that the area that is the source of the bleeding is about 3 mm in diameter.  You make the decision to use a silver nitrate stick.    How long should you apply pressure with the stick?
    1. 9.Why it is it important not to use the silver nitrate for over that time frame? 
    2. 10.After hemostasis is obtained, what are three types of treatment methods that can be used to protect the cauterization site? 
    1. 11.If that had not stopped the bleeding and you had to make the decision to use a nasal sponge or nasal tampon, the sponge/tampon should be coated in _____________ and left in place for __________ hours. 
    2. 12.After putting in the nasal sponge/tampon, approximately 2 ml of ________ or _______ should be dripped onto the tip to help the sponge expand. 
    3. 13.After placing the nasal sponge/tampon, the patient should be closely monitored for 3-5 minutes.  Why is that?
    4. 14.After the close monitoring, the patient should be kept in observation status for ______ minutes. 
    5. 15. If it is necessary to pack the nose, it may be advisable to give the patient a narcotic or sedative medication (unless a contraindication exists).  Why? 
    6. 16.Name 5 complications of the above procedures. 
    7. 17.After the procedure, you tell the pt and his mother that he can take acetaminophen for any pain/discomfort.  Why is it important not to have him take ibuprofen? 
    8. 18.What is the leading cause of nosebleeds in adolescents? 
    9. 19.What CPT code would you use for the above procedure? 
    10. 20.What is the definition of the above code?