Psychopathology

Respond to this discussion post. Do not argue. Just add points to either agree or disagree to the already made points. Do not repeat what is already said. 1 page is good. Learning materials and instructions for the discussion is below the discussion. DISCUSSION Psychopathology is defined “the study of psychological and behavioral dysfunction occurring in mental illness or in social disorganization” (Psychopathology, (n.d.)). There are many factors involved in the development of mental illness that include genetic and environmental factors. Genetics appears to account for 2/3 of a person’s intelligence whereas 1/3 is linked to the environment (Sadock, 2014, p. 132).Many psychiatric conditions appear to have a link to an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, and can even have a familial link (Sadock, 2014, p. 2). Depression is thought to be related to diminished levels of the neurotransmitters Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinephrine in areas of the Brain such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Cingulate Gyrus, Hippocampus, Thalamus, and Frontal Cortex (Jackson & Milberg, 2018, p. 72). Many areas of the brain are also found to have been reduced in size with reduced number of neurons. There are similar size deficits found in certain areas of the brain as it pertains to other diseases such as Anxiety (cingulate cortex), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (hippocampus), and Schizophrenia (whole brain and hippocampus).Psychologically there are theories of cognitive development occurring at certain ages as proposed by Jean Piaget (Sadock, 2014, p. 93) that seek to explain how humans must learn how to develop through the four stages (sensorimotor, preoperational thought, concrete operations, and formal operations). This theory has led to therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy that attempt to reshape the way the patient looks at the current situation. Cognitive processes are also dependent on learning concepts such as classical and operant conditioning that can influence how people react and can also be important in helping to change their behavior. Memories appear to lead to the creation of new synapses in the brain known as neuroplasticity (Sadock, 2014, p. 110).Sociologically, the environment that a person grows up in can also play a role in their mental health. There is an associated higher prevalence of mental illness in people that are unemployed, poorly educated, and lower income (Cheung & Mak, 2018) as well as in lesbian, gay or bisexual individuals. Certain cultures may present for uncommon symptoms to certain diseases such as the somatization seen in Chinese patients with depression called shenjing shuairupo (Cheung & Mak, 2018, p. 133). A person’s ability to effectively communicate with others is known as interpersonal relationships. “The ability to navigate social interactions in an appropriately flexible and goal-directed manner is a major component of psychological health” (Girard, et al., 2017). When a depressed person withdraws and does not assert themselves, it can lead to furthering their depression. This can be true for people with many other mental health conditions as well.When attempting to diagnose and treat a person suffering from a mental illness, it will be important to be able to incorporate the biological, psychological, social, and interpersonal factors into the treatment plan to achieve the best possible. Outcome for the patient.