Week 11 Discussion

 Week 11 DiscussionCOLLAPSE

Wow!  You made it to the end.  But it is not over.  One more task.

We have really covered a lot of subjects. We would love to hear what your take away is:

  • for those things you think you will use the most;
  • what you found most interesting; and
  • what you never knew before.

Looking back here is the list.

1. Use the rational-actor paradigm, identify problems, and then fix them.

2.Use benefit-cost analysis to evaluate decisions.

3. Use marginal analysis to make extent (how much) decisions.

4. Make profitable investment and shut-down decisions.

5. Set optimal prices and price discriminate.

6. Predict industry-level changes using demand and supply analysis.

7. Understand the long-run forces that erode profitability.

8. Develop long-run strategies to increase firm value.

9. Predict how your own actions will influence other people’s actions.

10. Bargain effectively.

11. Make decisions in uncertain environments.

12. Solve the problems caused by moral hazard and adverse selection.

13. Motivate employees to work in the firm’s best interests.

14. Motivate divisions to work in the best interests of the parent company.

15. Manage vertical relationships with upstream suppliers or downstream customers.

Thanks from Dr Cruceru, Dr Isley, and Dr Slinsky

State and Local Finance Economics

There is requirement in the document that I uploaded. 



Discussion Topic:

Identify a current macroeconomic issue that is currently being debated and explain why you consider this a macro issue. Also provide details on the nature of the issue.

  Note that you are required to comment on at least two of your fellow students’ posting. 

Assignment 2: Required Assignment 1—Organizational Assessment


As a manager, you have to continually evaluate the organization and its strategy and consistently adapt the business model to ensure that the overall business plan is one step ahead of the competition.

In this assignment, you will get an opportunity to learn, from actual experiences, how an informed manager would assess the current overall health of an organization and make decisions regarding future opportunities and performance.


Select an industry relevant to your career. If you lack work experience, you can base your selection on real-life market situations or business areas that you may have knowledge about. You can also consult sources such as the Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, Bloomberg Markets, the Economist, US News and World Report, and the Argosy University online library resources.

  • Research the growth opportunities in the industry, competitive strategies that were employed, typical customers, and other relevant information related to the industry. Specific opportunities will differ depending on the industry selected, but be sure to consider current economic events and news relating to the industry that may influence the future direction of your industry.
  • Within this industry, select a midrange-performing company that provides goods or services. Then, address the following:
    • Analyze why this company maintains the level of success it does from an economic and financial perspective. Develop at least two visual aids (e.g., charts, graphs, or tables) to support your argument.
    • Evaluate whether the company’s pricing and positioning decisions contribute to or hinder that success.
  • Evaluate whether the strategy currently used by your industry, as discussed in previous sections, appears to be sustainable over time.

Create a 4- to 5-page research paper. At the end your paper, include a reference page and cite scholarly sources in APA style.

Submission Details:

  • By the due date assigned, save your paper as M3_A2_lastname_firstinitial.doc and submit your document to the Submissions Area.

Intermediate Macro Problem Set


1. Based on your understanding of the aggregate expenditure model, we know with certainty that an equal and simultaneous increase in G and T will cause:

(a) an increase in output
(b) no change in output
(c) a reduction in output
(d) an increase in investment (e) a decrease in investment

For the following two questions, suppose an economy produces only milk and butter. As- sume that all production is consumed in each year, and that price and quantity data are given in the tables below.

Year 1
Good Quantity Price

Milk 500 $2 Butter 2000 $1

Year 2
Good Quantity Price

Milk 900 $3 Butter 3000 $2


2. (Refer to the above tables) Between Year 1 and Year 2, real GDP (based on Year 1 as a base year) grew by

(a) 58.18% (b) 158.18% (c) 160% (d) 60%

(e) 260%

3. (Refer to the above tables) Between Year 1 and Year 2, the GDP deflator (based on Year 1 as a base year) rose

(a) 81.25% (b) 90%
(c) 190% (d) 83.33 (e) 183.33%

ECON 301: Intermediate Macro Problem Set #1 1

  1. Whichofthefollowinggenerallyoccurswhenacentralbankpursuesexpansionarymonetary policy?
    (a) the central bank purchases bonds and the interest rate increases (b) the central bank purchases bonds and the interest rate decreases (c) the central bank sells bonds and the interest rate increases
    (d) the central bank sells bonds and the interest rate decreases
    (e) an increase in the reserve requirement ratio
  2. The marginal propensity to consume represents
    (a) the level of consumption that occurs if disposable income is zero.
    (b) the ratio of total consumption to disposable income.
    (c) total income minus total taxes.
    (d) the change in output caused by a one-unit change in autonomous demand.
    (e) the change in consumption caused by a one-unit change in disposable income.
  3. Suppose a one-year discount bond offers to pay $1000 in one year and currently has a 15% interest rate. Given this information, we know that the bond’s price must be approximately:
    (a) $870 (b) $1150 (c) $850 (d) $950 (e) $985
  4. Equilibrium in the goods market requires that
    (a) production equals income.
    (b) production equals demand.
    (c) consumption equals saving.
    (d) consumption equals income.
    (e) government spending equals taxes minus transfers.
  5. The LM curve shifts down when which of the following occurs?
    (a) an increase in taxes
    (b) an increase in output
    (c) an open market purchase of bonds by the central bank (d) a decrease in the nominal money stock
    (e) an increase in the price level

ECON 301: Intermediate Macro Problem Set #1 2

  1. Suppose there is an increase in consumer confidence. Which of the following represents the complete list of variables that must increase in the short run in response to this increase in consumer confidence?
    (a) consumption
    (b) consumption and investment
    (c) consumption, investment and output
    (d) consumption and output
    (e) consumption, output and the interest rate
  2. In a given year, suppose a company spends $100 million on intermediate goods and $200 million on wages, with no other expenses. Also assume that its total sales are $800 million. The value added by this company equals:
    (a) $200 million (b) $300 million (c) $500 million (d) $700 million (e) $800 million

ECON 301: Intermediate Macro Problem Set #1 3


  1. Consider an economy with a corn producer, some consumers, and a government. In a given year, the corn producer grows 30 million bushels of corn and the market price for corn is $5 per bushel. Of the 30 million bushels produced, 20 million bushels are sold to consumers, 5 million are stored in inventory, and 5 million are sold to the government to feed the army. The corn producer pays $60 million in wages to consumers and $10 million in taxes to the government. Consumers pay $5 million in taxes to the government, and receive $5 million in Social Security payments from the government. The profits of the corn producer are distributed to consumers. Calculate private disposable income, private sector saving, government saving, (national) saving, and the government deficit.
  2. Assume an economy with a coal producer, a steel producer, and some consumers (there is no government). In a given year, the coal producer produces 15 million tons of coal and sells it for $5 per ton. The coal producer pays $50 million in wages to consumers. The steel producer uses 25 million tons of coal as an input into steel production, all purchased at $5 per ton. Of this, 15 million tons of coal comes from the domestic coal producer and 10 million tons is imported. The steel producer produces 10 million tons of steel and sells it for $20 per ton. Domestic consumers buy 8 million tons of steel, and 2 million tons are exported. The steel producer pays consumers $40 million in wages. All profits made by domestic producers are distributed to domestic consumers.
    Show the details of the calculations that determine GDP using the
    (a) product (value-added) approach,
    (b) expenditure (value of final goods) approach, (c) and income approach.

3. Consider the following economy.

Y=Z Z=C+I+G C = c0 + c1YDYD = Y − T

T = t0 + t1Y I = b0
G = g0

where Y is output, Z is aggregate demand, C is consumption, I is investment, G is gov- ernment spending, YD is disposable income, T is a tax function, t0 is a lump-sum tax, t1is a proportional tax on income, and I is investment. The parameter values are c0 = 1000,c1 =0.75,t0 =−600,t1 =0.2,b0 =800,andg0 =1200.

(a) Solve for an expression for equilibrium Y (i.e., keeping all algebraic symbols), then calculate equilibrium Y using the expression and the parameter values.

ECON 301: Intermediate Macro Problem Set #1 4

  1. (b)  Graph the aggregate expenditure/goods market model. Be sure to indicate the numeri- cal values of the intercept and slope of the demand curve as well as the value where the demand curve crosses the 45 degree line. Why is the slope different than the marginal propensity to consume out of income?
  2. (c)  What is the expression for the government spending multiplier? What is the expres- sion for the lump-sum tax multiplier? What are the values of these multipliers? Why does a reduction in lump-sum taxes have a different size multiplier than an increase in government spending?
  3. (d)  Suppose G = g1 = 1500 in the following year, but everything else remains the same. What is next year’s equilibrium Y ? Call this equilibrium Y1, and the old equilibriumY0. What is the percent change in equilibrium output year-over-year? Draw the new demand curve on the same figure as item (b) and indicate the relevant values. Indicate with an arrow the direction the demand curve shifts.
  4. Suppose that money demand is given by
    Md =$Y(.25−i)
    where $Y is $100. Also suppose that the supply of money is $20.

    1. (a)  What is the equilibrium interest rate?
    2. (b)  If the Federal Reserve wants to increase i by 10 percentage points (e.g., from 2% to 12%), at what level should it set the supply of money?
  5. Show the changes on short run equilibrium real GDP and the equilibrium nominal interest rate in the IS-LM model from each of the following policies/economic situations. Briefly explain any economic reactions (i.e. what is occurring in the goods and/or money markets. One graph is necessary for each part. Clearly label your graph for full credit.
    (a) A decrease in taxes
    (b) An increase in the money supply (c) A decrease in consumer confidence


Discussion: Design Thinking Inspiration and Ideation

While you are doing your coursework for this program, what workspace are you using? Are you currently at your workplace in your office or cubicle, or perhaps working in a home office or a shared space? Regardless of where you do your work for this class, do you find it to be an ideal workspace? Perhaps you need better lighting, a quieter environment, or inspiring and motivating mementos to keep you focused. Perhaps you need an innovative improvement. These are exactly the types of issues that can be solved by design thinking and the application of your own creative skills.

This week, you will complete assignments that involve the design-thinking process. By utilizing this creative process, you will gain a deeper insight into the ways that you can bring creativity to your own life at work and at home.

Phase 1: Inspiration

The first phase of the process, as described by Tim Brown, is inspiration.

Take some time to interact with the space where you work. This could be at your job, where you do homework, or your home office. Make sure it is an environment over which you have some control, such as with lighting, sound, furniture placement, etc.

Adopt the role of a neutral observer and generate a list of observations of how you use this workspace. Your list should answer the following questions:

  • What about the workspace is already optimized or ideal?
  • Why do these things work well?
  • What about the workspace could be improved?
  • Are there problems or difficulties that you repeatedly experience?
  • What behaviors, functions, and interactions that take place in your workspace seem interesting or notable?

Your process should take the form of brainstorming. That is, the initial list does not need to be formal in tone. Rather, you should strive to capture your observations as they occur and generate as many ideas as possible.

After completing your list, write a short paragraph describing in greater depth one of the difficult or problematic aspects of your workspace you identified during the brainstorming phase. This will be the workspace challenge that you will continue to work on for Phase 2 of the design thinking process. Remember, you are not coming up with solutions at this time, but only a detailed description of the workspace challenge you have identified.

Phase 2: Ideation

To begin Phase 2 of the design thinking process, focus on the workspace challenge you identified in Phase 1 of this Discussion. Considering the workspace challenge you indentified, brainstorm a list of at least 10 innovative ideas that could resolve or help you meet the challenge; if you come up with more than 10 ideas, feel free to post them all. To generate innovative ideas, consider the following guidelines:

  • Do not evaluate your ideas; all are valid and there are no bad ideas.
  • Do not limit your ideas to products. An innovation can also be a new service, process, or organizational change.
  • Reach the maximum amount of possible ideas; do not waste time analyzing.
  • Do not fear extreme ideas; often the best innovations come from ideas that initially seem extreme.
  • Strive to suggest a disruptive innovation if at all possible–a completely new and radical idea.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post your list of workspace observations and your description of one particular problem from Phase 1, and your innovative ideas list from Phase 2.


Respond to your colleagues by doing the following:

  1. First, respond to the Discussion posts of two colleagues. If possible, respond to colleagues who have not yet received feedback on their original post.
    • Consider the problem they have described, and brainstorm at least 5 additional ideas that might solve their problems. Post your ideas as a response to your colleagues to help them consider new aspects of their problem.
  2. Second, respond to the post of one of your colleagues (you may choose one of the colleagues for whom you offered new ideas, or select another colleague’s post. If possible, respond to a colleague who may not yet have received feedback):
    • Select one of the ideas you find most interesting as a possible solution and make a case for why this idea could be a potential solution to the problem identified by your colleague.
    • Additionally, as part of your response, share your observations about the design thinking process. Explain aspects of it that were helpful in generating ideas and evaluating solutions.

compare two emerging markets


Pick two emerging markets and write a 7 to 10-page paper comparing and contrasting the countries as places in which to do business. The paper should cover modes of entry (exporting, FDI etc.), as well as inducements and obstacles to doing business. Please spend some time comparing risk and return in the countries


Written Assignment from reading the article

Research Essay


Research and critically analyse issues relating to the tourism, event and hospitality environment.  (2000 words + At least 5 References in APA 6th edition style)


Using Textbook  CCH Federal Taxation: Basic Principles. Smith,

Hamerlink, Hasselback. 2016 Edition. Please answer in 1 page the

following questions.

  1 – Clearly, individuals are carrying a much heavier tax burden than

corporations.  Is this justified?  

2 – Some economists have argued that corporate taxes should be

eliminated and that only individual taxes should be paid.  Explain.


well cited paper